The insights that the Buddha realized on the day of his enlightenment can be summarized into five points:

1. The transcendence of time, wherein the past, present, and future of the three realms exist within a single thought. Within that thought, encompassing the three thousand great thousand worlds, the past, present, and future are not distinct stages; the passage of time is like a continuous thread, weaving seamlessly together. The timeless continuum, without beginning or end, is encapsulated in the present moment. The Buddha’s realization transcends the constraints of time; the Dharma body of the Buddha exists within the unity of time.

2. The transcendence of space, wherein the Buddha sensed the approaching world from afar, gradually drawing nearer to him. Mountains, rivers, and landmasses unfolded before his eyes, emitting a colorful radiance. What was once impure in the past now transformed into purity, ugliness into beauty, and darkness into light. Amidst the verdant greenery of the mountains, the Buddha realized the true nature of Buddhahood, while from the trickling streams of brooks, he experienced the truth of egolessness, and felt the eternity of life. The distance and proximity of the world seemed to pose no barriers to the Buddha; his realization transcended the limitations of space, permeating all.

3. The transcendence of birth and death, where the Buddha realized that the troubles of the world are ultimately unsatisfactory. The cycle of birth and death is but a false label! Birth and death are merely illusory appearances; beings, driven by karma, are born and die within the stream of existence, continuously cycling between life and death. The common person is unaware, mistaking this cycle as reality. In truth, birth and death are not two separate phenomena but one and the same. Superficially, the birth of life manifests in various forms of joy, while its demise brings about sadness and grief. However, when observed with the wisdom of an enlightened mind, all is seen as illusory. Death is akin to abandoning an old, dilapidated house and moving into a new one; the body is like a house—if damaged, it is replaced with a new one. In reality, life is death, and death is life; neither is truly what it seems. It is our attachment to self that causes the turmoil and suffering of the world. Once this attachment is removed, life is death, and death is life; birth and death are one, with no distinction between them. In the present moment lies the attainment of great liberation or great freedom. At this moment, the Buddha saw that the five aggregates are empty, devoid of self. By relinquishing attachment to self, he realized the emptiness of self. Thus, he was able to transcend all suffering and break free from the cycle of birth and death.

4. The transcendence of self and others, where the Buddha realized that there is no distinction between oneself, all humanity, and all beings. All sentient beings are equal and capable of attaining enlightenment. He proclaimed a groundbreaking declaration that reverberates through the ages: “Marvelous, marvelous! All sentient beings possess the wisdom and virtues of a Tathagata, yet they fail to realize it due to their attachments and delusions.”

5. The Buddha realized the origin of the Great Way, the source of wisdom and life for all sentient beings in the universe, known as the omniscient wisdom. He comprehended every aspect of existence with perfect clarity and understanding, transcending all barriers. He understood the past lives and future destinies of every sentient being, knowing the actions they performed in the past and the consequences that led to their current circumstances. He had complete insight into the thoughts of every sentient being at every moment and could empathize with their joys, sorrows, and desires. In an instant, he saw everything clearly. The Buddha thoroughly understood the origins of all forms of existence in the universe—the mountains, rivers, land, sun, moon, stars, plants, and animals—all originating from the primordial source of cosmic life, the Tathagatagarbha. Within the Tathagatagarbha, there is no birth or death, no suffering or joy, no cycle of life and death, no good or evil, no right or wrong, no black or white, no large or small, no distinction between self and others, no concept of self, no proximity or distance, no past, present, or future, and no concept of separation. It is absolute, it is truth, it is eternal, it is ever-present, it neither arises nor ceases, it does not come nor go—it has always been there! Sentient beings, due to a single deluded thought, have become entangled in the cycle of birth and death, giving rise to various attachments and actions. At this moment, the Buddha’s mind was extraordinarily peaceful, filled with a wordless compassion. Because he saw all life in the universe trapped in an endless cycle of suffering, burdened by various attachments and unable to attain liberation, the Buddha’s enlightenment can be said to have transcended all life and death, surpassed all afflictions, and, like a great mirror, illuminated all aspects of the universe. Thus, he attained the unsurpassed, perfect enlightenment, becoming the supreme Buddha of the entire universe!